Registration Statement No. 333-217200
Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2)
Pricing Supplement dated April 29, 2019 to the Prospectus dated April 27, 2017, the Prospectus Supplement
dated September 23, 2018 and the Product Supplement dated May 1, 2017
Senior Medium-Term Notes, Series E
Bullish Digital Return Notes with Barrier due April 30, 2021
Linked to the Lesser Performing of the SPDR® S&P® Oil & Gas Exploration and Production ETF and
the Energy Select Sector SPDR® Fund
|·||The notes are designed for investors who seek a fixed positive return equal to the Digital Return (as defined below) if a Barrier Event (as defined below) does not occur as to either the SPDR® S&P® Oil & Gas Exploration and Production ETF and the Energy Select Sector SPDR® Fund (each an “Underlying Asset”). Investors should be willing to forgo periodic interest, and if a Barrier Event occurs, be willing to lose 1% of their principal amount for each 1% that the price of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset decreases.|
|·||A “Barrier Event” will occur if the closing price of either Underlying Asset on the Valuation Date is less than its Barrier Level (70% of its Initial Level).|
|·||Investors in the notes may lose up to 100% of their principal amount at maturity.|
|·||The Digital Return is 20.20%. Accordingly, the maximum amount payable on the notes is $1,202.00 for each $1,000 in principal amount.|
|·||Any payment at maturity is subject to the credit risk of Bank of Montreal.|
|·||The notes do not bear interest.|
|·||The notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.|
|·||The notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.|
|·||The offering priced on April 29, 2019, and the notes will settle through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company on May 2, 2019.|
|·||The notes are scheduled to mature on April 30, 2021.|
|·||The CUSIP number of the notes is 06367WKA0.|
|·||Our subsidiary, BMO Capital Markets Corp. (“BMOCM”), is the agent for this offering. See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)” below.|
|·||The notes will not be subject to conversion into our common shares or the common shares of any of our affiliates under subsection 39.2(2.3) of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act (the “CDIC Act”).|
BMO CAPITAL MARKETS
Additional Terms of the Notes
You should read this pricing supplement together with the product supplement dated May 1, 2017, the prospectus supplement dated September 23, 2018 and the prospectus dated April 27, 2017. This pricing supplement, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the notes and supersedes all other prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, fact sheets, brochures or other educational materials of ours or the agent. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in “Additional Risk Factors Relating to the Notes” in the product supplement, as the notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisers before you invest in the notes.
You may access these documents on the SEC website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if such address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):
|·||Product supplement dated May 1, 2017:|
|·||Prospectus supplement dated September 23, 2018:|
|·||Prospectus dated April 27, 2017:|
Please note that references in the product supplement to the prospectus supplement will be deemed to refer to the prospectus supplement dated September 23, 2018.
Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 927971. As used in this pricing supplement, “we,” “us” or “our” refers to Bank of Montreal.
Selected Risk Considerations
An investment in the notes involves significant risks. Investing in the notes is not equivalent to investing directly in the Underlying Assets or their components. These risks are explained in more detail in the “Additional Risk Factors Relating to the Notes” section of the product supplement.
|·||Your investment in the notes may result in a loss. — You may lose some or all of your investment in the notes. The payment at maturity will be based on the Final Level of each Underlying Asset, and whether the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset on the Valuation Date has declined from its Initial Level to a price that is less than its Barrier Level. If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset is less than its Barrier Level, you will lose 1% of the principal amount of your notes for each 1% that its Final Level is less than its Initial Level. Accordingly, you could lose up to 100% of the principal amount of the notes.|
|·||Your return on the notes is limited to the Digital Return, regardless of any appreciation in the price of the Underlying Assets. — The return on your notes will not be greater than the Digital Return. This will be the case even if the Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset exceeds the Digital Return.|
|·||Your investment is subject to the credit risk of Bank of Montreal. — Our credit ratings and credit spreads may adversely affect the market value of the notes. Investors are dependent on our ability to pay the amount due at maturity, and therefore investors are subject to our credit risk and to changes in the market’s view of our creditworthiness. Any decline in our credit ratings or increase in the credit spreads charged by the market for taking our credit risk is likely to adversely affect the value of the notes.|
|·||Your return on the notes will be determined solely by reference to the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset, even if the other Underlying Asset performs better. — Your payment at maturity will only be determined by reference to the performance of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset. Even if the other Underlying Asset has appreciated in value compared to its Initial Level, or has experienced a decline that is less than that of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset, your return at maturity will only be determined by reference to the performance of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset.|
|·||Your return on the notes will be determined by reference to each Underlying Asset individually, not to a basket, and the payments on the notes will be based on the performance of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset. — The notes are not linked to a weighted basket, in which the risk may be mitigated and diversified among each of the basket components. For example, in the case of notes linked to a weighted basket, the return would depend on the weighted aggregate performance of the basket components reflected as the basket return. As a result, the depreciation of one basket component could be mitigated by the appreciation of the other basket component, as scaled by the weighting of that basket component. However, in the case of the notes, the individual performance of each Underlying Asset would not be combined, and the depreciation of an Underlying Asset would not be mitigated by any appreciation of the other Underlying Asset. Instead, your return at maturity will depend solely on the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset. In addition, to the extent that both Underlying Assets hold stocks relating to the energy sector, they may each decrease in value at the same time, depending upon conditions in that industry.|
|·||Potential conflicts. — We and our affiliates play a variety of roles in connection with the issuance of the notes, including acting as calculation agent. In performing these duties, the economic interests of the calculation agent and other affiliates of ours are potentially adverse to your interests as an investor in the notes. We or one or more of our affiliates may also engage in trading of shares of each Underlying Asset or the securities held by the Underlying Assets on a regular basis as part of our general broker-dealer and other businesses, for proprietary accounts, for other accounts under management or to facilitate transactions for our customers. Any of these activities could adversely affect the prices of the Underlying Assets and, therefore, the market value of, and the payments on, the notes. We or one or more of our affiliates may also issue or underwrite other securities or financial or derivative instruments with returns linked or related to changes in the performance of the Underlying Assets. By introducing competing products into the marketplace in this manner, we or one or more of our affiliates could adversely affect the market value of the notes.|
|·||Our initial estimated value of the notes is lower than the price to public. — Our initial estimated value of the notes is only an estimate, and is based on a number of factors. The price to public of the notes exceeds our initial estimated value, because costs associated with offering, structuring and hedging the notes are included in the price to public, but are not included in the estimated value. These costs include the underwriting discount and selling concessions, the profits that we and our affiliates expect to realize for assuming the risks in hedging our obligations under the notes and the estimated cost of hedging these obligations.|
|·||Our initial estimated value does not represent any future value of the notes, and may also differ from the estimated value of any other party. — Our initial estimated value of the notes as of the date of this pricing supplement is derived using our internal pricing models. This value is based on market conditions and other relevant factors, which include volatility of the Underlying Assets, dividend rates and interest rates. Different pricing models and assumptions could provide values for the notes that are greater than or less than our initial estimated value. In addition, market conditions and other relevant factors after the Pricing Date are expected to change, possibly rapidly, and our assumptions may prove to be incorrect. After the Pricing Date, the value of the notes could change dramatically due to changes in market conditions, our creditworthiness, and the other factors set forth in this pricing supplement and the product supplement. These changes are likely to impact the price, if any, at which we or BMOCM would be willing to purchase the notes from you in any secondary market transactions. Our initial estimated value does not represent a minimum price at which we or our affiliates would be willing to buy your notes in any secondary market at any time.|
|·||The terms of the notes were not determined by reference to the credit spreads for our conventional fixed-rate debt. — To determine the terms of the notes, we used an internal funding rate that represents a discount from the credit spreads for our conventional fixed-rate debt. As a result, the terms of the notes are less favorable to you than if we had used a higher funding rate.|
|·||Certain costs are likely to adversely affect the value of the notes. — Absent any changes in market conditions, any secondary market prices of the notes will likely be lower than the price to public. This is because any secondary market prices will likely take into account our then-current market credit spreads, and because any secondary market prices are likely to exclude all or a portion of the underwriting discount and selling concessions and the hedging profits and estimated hedging costs that are included in the price to public of the notes and that may be reflected on your account statements. In addition, any such price is also likely to reflect a discount to account for costs associated with establishing or unwinding any related hedge transaction, such as dealer discounts, mark-ups and other transaction costs. As a result, the price, if any, at which BMOCM or any other party may be willing to purchase the notes from you in secondary market transactions, if at all, will likely be lower than the price to public. Any sale that you make prior to the maturity date could result in a substantial loss to you.|
|·||You will not have any shareholder rights and will have no right to receive any shares of the Underlying Assets or the securities held by the Underlying Assets at maturity. — Investing in your notes will not make you a holder of any shares of the Underlying Assets or any company held by the Underlying Assets. Neither you nor any other holder or owner of the notes will have any voting rights, any right to receive dividends or other distributions or any other rights with respect to those securities.|
|·||The stocks of companies in the energy sector are subject to swift price fluctuations. — The issuers of the stocks held by the XOP and XLE develop and produce, among other things, crude oil and natural gas, and provide, among other things, drilling services and other services related to energy resources production and distribution. Stock prices for these types of companies are affected by supply and demand both for their specific product or service and for energy products in general. The price of oil and gas, exploration and production spending, government regulation, world events and economic conditions will likewise affect the performance of these companies. The stock prices of oil service companies could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a variety of factors, including the ability of the OPEC to set and maintain production levels and pricing, the level of production in non-OPEC countries, the demand for oil and gas, which is negatively impacted by economic downturns, the policies of various governments regarding exploration and development of oil and gas reserves, advances in exploration and development technology and the political environment of oil-producing regions. Correspondingly, securities of companies in the energy field are subject to swift price and supply fluctuations caused by events relating to international politics, energy conservation, the success of exploration projects and tax and other governmental regulatory policies. Weak demand for the companies' products or services or for energy products and services in general, as well as negative developments in these other areas, would adversely impact the value of the stocks held by the Underlying Assets and, therefore, their prices and the value of the notes.|
|·||Changes that affect an Underlying Index may adversely affect the market value of the notes and the amount you will receive at maturity. — The policies of the sponsor of each index to which the Underlying Assets are linked, concerning the calculation of the applicable Underlying Index, additions, deletions or substitutions of the components of the applicable Underlying Index and the manner in which changes affecting those components, such as stock dividends, reorganizations or mergers, may be reflected in the applicable Underlying Index and, therefore, could affect the price of the applicable Underlying Asset, the amount payable on the notes at maturity and the market value of the notes prior to maturity. The amount payable on the notes and their market value could also be affected if either index sponsor changes these policies, for example, by changing the manner in which it calculates the applicable Underlying Index, or if that sponsor discontinues or suspends the calculation or publication of the applicable Underlying Index.|
|·||We have no affiliation with the sponsor of each Underlying Index and will not be responsible for its actions. — Neither index sponsor is an affiliate of ours or will be involved in the offering of the notes in any way. Consequently, we have no control over the actions of either index sponsor, including any actions of the type that would require the calculation agent to adjust the payment to you at maturity. Neither index sponsor has any obligation of any sort with respect to the notes. Thus, neither index sponsor has any obligation to take your interests into consideration for any reason, including in taking any actions that might affect the value of the notes. None of our proceeds from the issuance of the notes will be delivered to either index sponsor.|
|·||Adjustments to an Underlying Asset could adversely affect the notes. — The sponsor or advisor of each Underlying Asset is responsible for calculating and maintaining the applicable Underlying Asset. That sponsor or advisor can add, delete or substitute the stocks comprising the Underlying Asset or make other methodological changes that could change the share price of the Underlying Asset at any time. If one or more of these events occurs, the calculation of the amount payable at maturity may be adjusted to reflect such event or events. Consequently, any of these actions could adversely affect the amounts payable on the notes and/or the market value of the notes.|
|·||The correlation between the performance of an Underlying Asset and the performance of its Underlying Index may be imperfect. — The performance of each Underlying Asset is linked principally to the performance of the Underlying Index. However, because of the potential discrepancies identified in more detail in the product supplement, the return on the applicable Underlying Asset may correlate imperfectly with the return on the Underlying Index.|
|·||Lack of liquidity. — The notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. BMOCM may offer to purchase the notes in the secondary market, but is not required to do so. Even if there is a secondary market, it may not provide enough liquidity to allow you to trade or sell the notes easily. Because other dealers are not likely to make a secondary market for the notes, the price at which you may be able to trade the notes is likely to depend on the price, if any, at which BMOCM is willing to buy the notes.|
|·||Hedging and trading activities. — We or any of our affiliates may have carried out or may carry out hedging activities related to the notes, including purchasing or selling shares of the Underlying Assets or the securities included in the Underlying Assets, or futures or options relating to the Underlying Assets, or other derivative instruments with returns linked or related to changes in the performance of the Underlying Assets. We or our affiliates may also engage in trading relating to the Underlying Assets from time to time. Any of these hedging or trading activities on or prior to the Pricing Date and during the term of the notes could adversely affect our payment to you at maturity.|
|·||Many economic and market factors will influence the value of the notes. — In addition to the prices of the Underlying Assets and interest rates on any trading day, the value of the notes will be affected by a number of economic and market factors that may either offset or magnify each other, and which are described in more detail in the product supplement.|
|·||You must rely on your own evaluation of the merits of an investment linked to the Underlying Assets. — In the ordinary course of their businesses, our affiliates from time to time may express views on expected movements in the prices of the Underlying Assets or the prices of the securities held by the Underlying Assets. One or more of our affiliates have published, and in the future may publish, research reports that express views on the Underlying Assets or these securities. However, these views are subject to change from time to time. Moreover, other professionals who deal in the markets relating to the Underlying Assets at any time may have significantly different views from those of our affiliates. You are encouraged to derive information concerning each of the Underlying Assets from multiple sources, and you should not rely on the views expressed by our affiliates.|
Neither the offering of the notes nor any views which our affiliates from time to time may express in the ordinary course of their businesses constitutes a recommendation as to the merits of an investment in the notes.
|·||Significant aspects of the tax treatment of the notes are uncertain. — The tax treatment of the notes is uncertain. We do not plan to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service or from any Canadian authorities regarding the tax treatment of the notes, and the Internal Revenue Service or a court may not agree with the tax treatment described in this pricing supplement.|
The Internal Revenue Service has issued a notice indicating that it and the Treasury Department are actively considering whether, among other issues, a holder should be required to accrue interest over the term of an instrument such as the notes even though that holder will not receive any payments with respect to the notes until maturity and whether all or part of the gain a holder may recognize upon sale or maturity of an instrument such as the notes could be treated as ordinary income. The outcome of this process is uncertain and could apply on a retroactive basis.
Please read carefully the section entitled “U.S. Federal Tax Information” in this pricing supplement, the section entitled “Supplemental Tax Considerations—Supplemental U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying product supplement, the section entitled “United States Federal Income Taxation” in the accompanying prospectus and the section entitled “Certain Income Tax Consequences” in the accompanying prospectus supplement. You should consult your tax advisor about your own tax situation.
Hypothetical Return on the Notes at Maturity
The following table and examples illustrate the hypothetical returns at maturity on a $1,000 investment in the notes based on hypothetical Percentage Changes of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset. The “return,” as used in this section is the number, expressed as a percentage, which results from comparing the payment at maturity per $1,000 in principal amount of the notes to $1,000. The hypothetical total returns set forth below are based on a hypothetical Initial Level of 1,000, a hypothetical Barrier Level of 70% of each Initial Level, and the Digital Return of 20.20%. The hypothetical returns set forth below are for illustrative purposes only and may not be the actual returns applicable to investors in the notes. The numbers appearing in the following table and in the examples below have been rounded for ease of analysis. We make no representation or warranty as to which Underlying Assets will be the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset. It is possible that the Final Level of each Underlying Asset will be less than its Barrier Level.
|Hypothetical Final Level of
the Lesser Performing
Change of the Lesser
Performing Underlying Asset
Payment at Maturity
Return on the Notes
Hypothetical Examples of Amounts Payable at Maturity
The following examples illustrate how the returns set forth in the table above are calculated.
Example 1: The price of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset decreases from the hypothetical Initial Level of 1,000.00 to a hypothetical Final Level of 400.00, representing a Percentage Change of -60%. Because the Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset is negative and its hypothetical Final Level is less than its hypothetical Initial Level by more than the Barrier Percentage of -30.00%, the investor receives a payment at maturity of $400 per $1,000 in principal amount of the notes, calculated as follows:
$1,000 + ($1,000 x -60%) = $400
Example 2: The price of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset decreases from the hypothetical Initial Level of 1,000.00 to a hypothetical Final Level of 900.00, representing a Percentage Change of -10.00%. Although the Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset is negative, because its hypothetical Final Level is less than its hypothetical Initial Level by not more than 30.00%, the investor receives a payment at maturity of $1,202.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of the notes, representing the Digital Return.
Example 3: The price of the of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset increases from the hypothetical Initial Level of 1,000.00 to a hypothetical Final Level of 1,030.00, representing a Percentage Change of 3.00%. Because the hypothetical Final Level of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset is greater than its hypothetical Initial Level, the investor receives a payment at maturity of $1,202.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of the notes, representing the Digital Return.
Example 4: The price of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset increases from the hypothetical Initial Level of 1,000.00 to a hypothetical Final Level of 1,500.00, representing a Percentage Change of 50%. Because the hypothetical Final Level of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset is greater than its hypothetical Initial Level, the investor receives a payment at maturity of $1,202.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of the notes, representing the Digital Return. However, in this case, the return on the notes would be less than the Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Underlying Asset.
U.S. Federal Tax Information
By purchasing the notes, each holder agrees (in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary) to treat each note as a pre-paid cash-settled derivative contract for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in the notes are uncertain and the Internal Revenue Service could assert that the notes should be taxed in a manner that is different from that described in the preceding sentence. Please see the discussion (including the opinion of our counsel Morrison & Foerster LLP) in the product supplement under “Supplemental Tax Considerations—Supplemental U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” which applies to the notes, except that the following disclosure supplements, and to the extent inconsistent supersedes, the discussion in the product supplement. The discussions below and in the accompanying product supplement do not apply to holders subject to special rules including holders subject to Section 451(b) of the Code.
Under current Internal Revenue Service guidance, withholding on “dividend equivalent” payments (as discussed in the product supplement), if any, will not apply to notes that are issued as of the date of this pricing supplement unless such notes are “delta-one” instruments. Based on our determination that the notes are not delta-one instruments, non-U.S. holders should not generally be subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments, if any, under the notes.
The accompanying product supplement notes that FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds from a sale or redemption of notes will only apply to payments made after December 31, 2018. That discussion is modified to reflect regulations proposed by the U.S. Treasury Department indicating an intent to eliminate the requirement under FATCA of withholding on gross proceeds of the disposition of financial instruments. The U.S. Treasury Department has indicated that taxpayers may rely on these proposed regulations pending their finalization. Prospective investors are urged to consult with their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on their investment in the notes.
Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)
BMOCM will purchase the notes from us at a purchase price reflecting the commission set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement. BMOCM has informed us that, as part of its distribution of the notes, it will reoffer the notes to other dealers who will sell them. Each such dealer, or each additional dealer engaged by a dealer to whom BMOCM reoffers the notes, will receive a commission from BMOCM, which will not exceed the commission set forth on the cover page. This commission includes a selling concession of up to 1.60% of the principal amount that we or one of our affiliates will pay to one or more dealers in connection with the distribution of the notes.
Certain dealers who purchase the notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may forego some or all of their selling concessions, fees or commissions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the notes in these accounts may be less than 100% of the principal amount, as set forth on the cover page of this document. Investors that hold their notes in these accounts may be charged fees by the investment advisor or manager of that account based on the amount of assets held in those accounts, including the notes.
We will deliver the notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the pricing date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the notes more than two business days prior to the issue date will be required to specify alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
We own, directly or indirectly, all of the outstanding equity securities of BMOCM, the agent for this offering. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5121, BMOCM may not make sales in this offering to any of its discretionary accounts without the prior written approval of the customer.
You should not construe the offering of the notes as a recommendation of the merits of acquiring an investment linked to any Underlying Asset or as to the suitability of an investment in the notes.
BMOCM may, but is not obligated to, make a market in the notes. BMOCM will determine any secondary market prices that it is prepared to offer in its sole discretion.
We may use this pricing supplement in the initial sale of the notes. In addition, BMOCM or another of our affiliates may use this pricing supplement in market-making transactions in any notes after their initial sale. Unless BMOCM or we inform you otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this pricing supplement is being used by BMOCM in a market-making transaction.
For a period of approximately three months following issuance of the notes, the price, if any, at which we or our affiliates would be willing to buy the notes from investors, and the value that BMOCM may also publish for the notes through one or more financial information vendors and which could be indicated for the notes on any brokerage account statements, will reflect a temporary upward adjustment from our estimated value of the notes that would otherwise be determined and applicable at that time. This temporary upward adjustment represents a portion of (a) the hedging profit that we or our affiliates expect to realize over the term of the notes and (b) the underwriting discount and selling concessions paid in connection with this offering. The amount of this temporary upward adjustment will decline to zero on a straight-line basis over the three-month period.
No Prospectus (as defined in Directive 2003/71/EC (as amended, the “Prospectus Directive”)) will be prepared in connection with the notes. Accordingly, the notes may not be offered to the public in any member state of the European Economic Area (the “EEA”), and any purchaser of the notes who subsequently sells any of the notes in any EEA member state must do so only in accordance with the requirements of the Prospectus Directive, as implemented in that member state.
The notes are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to, and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to, any retail investor in the EEA. For these purposes, the expression “offer" includes the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe the notes, and a “retail investor” means a person who is one (or more) of: (a) a retail client, as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU (as amended, “MiFID II”); or (b) a customer, within the meaning of Insurance Distribution Directive 2016/97/EU, as amended, where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II; or (c) not a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Directive. Consequently, no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014 (as amended, the “PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the EEA has been prepared, and therefore, offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA may be unlawful under the PRIIPs Regulation.
Additional Information Relating to the Estimated Initial Value of the Notes
Our estimated initial value of the notes that is set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement equals the sum of the values of the following hypothetical components:
|·||a fixed-income debt component with the same tenor as the notes, valued using our internal funding rate for structured notes; and|
|·||one or more derivative transactions relating to the economic terms of the notes.|
The internal funding rate used in the determination of the initial estimated value generally represents a discount from the credit spreads for our conventional fixed-rate debt. The value of these derivative transactions are derived from our internal pricing models. These models are based on factors such as the traded market prices of comparable derivative instruments and on other inputs, which include volatility, dividend rates, interest rates and other factors. As a result, the estimated initial value of the notes on the Pricing Date was determined based on market conditions on the Pricing Date.
The Underlying Assets
The selection of each Underlying Asset is not a recommendation to buy or sell the shares of that Underlying Asset. Neither we nor any of our affiliates make any representation to you as to the performance of the shares of any Underlying Asset. Information provided to or filed with the SEC under the Exchange Act and the Investment Company Act of 1940 relating to the Underlying Assets may be obtained through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. None of that information is included or incorporated by reference in this pricing supplement. All disclosures contained in this pricing supplement regarding the Underlying Assets, including, without limitation, their make-up, method of calculation, and changes in their components, have been derived from publicly available sources.
We encourage you to review recent prices of the Underlying Assets prior to making an investment decision with respect to the notes.
SPDR® S&P® Oil & Gas Exploration & Production ETF
This Underlying Asset is an investment portfolio maintained and managed by SSFM. This Underlying Asset trades on the NYSE Arca under the ticker symbol “XOP.” The inception date of this Underlying Asset is June 19, 2006.
This Underlying Asset seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the Underlying Index. The Underlying Index represents the oil and gas exploration and production sub-industry portion of the S&P Total Market Index (“S&P TMI”), an index that measures the performance of the U.S. equity market. This Underlying Asset is composed of companies that are in the oil and gas sector exploration and production.
This Underlying Asset utilizes a sampling strategy, which means that it is not required to purchase all of the securities represented in its Underlying Index. Instead, it may purchase a subset of the securities in the Underlying Index in an effort to hold a portfolio of securities with generally the same risk and return characteristics of the Underlying Index. Under normal market conditions, this Underlying Asset will invest at least 80% of its total assets in common stocks that comprise the Underlying Index.
The information above was compiled from the SPDR® website. We have not independently investigated the accuracy of that information. Information contained in the SPDR® website is not incorporated by reference in, and should not be considered a part of, this document.
The Underlying Index: S&P® Oil & Gas Exploration & Production Select Industry® Index
We have derived all information contained in this document regarding the Underlying Index, including, without limitation, its make-up, method of calculation and changes in its components, from publicly available information. Such information reflects the policies of, and is subject to change by, S&P.
The Underlying Index is an equal-weighted index that is designed to measure the performance of the oil and gas exploration and production sub-industry portion of the S&P TMI. The S&P TMI includes all U.S. common equities listed on the NYSE (including NYSE Arca), the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, and the Nasdaq Capital Market.
To be eligible for inclusion in the Underlying Index, companies must be in the S&P TMI and must be included in the relevant Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) sub-industry. The GICS was developed to establish a global standard for categorizing companies into sectors and industries. In addition to the above, companies must satisfy one of the three following combined size and liquidity criteria:
|·||float-adjusted market capitalization above US$500 million and float-adjusted liquidity ratio above 90%;|
|·||float-adjusted market capitalization above US$400 million and float-adjusted liquidity ratio above 150%; or|
|·||for current constituents, float adjusted market capitalization above US$300 million and float-adjusted liquidity ratio greater than or equal to 50%.|
All U.S. companies satisfying these requirements are included in the Underlying Index. The total number of companies in the Underlying Index should be at least 35. If there are fewer than 35 stocks, stocks from a supplementary list of highly correlated sub-industries that meet the market capitalization and liquidity thresholds above are included in order of their float-adjusted market capitalization to reach 35 constituents. Minimum market capitalization requirements may be relaxed to ensure there are at least 22 companies in the Underlying Index as of each rebalancing effective date.
Eligibility factors include:
|·||Market Capitalization: Float-adjusted market capitalization should be at least US$400 million for inclusion in the Underlying Index. Existing index components must have a float-adjusted market capitalization of US$300 million to remain in the Underlying Index at each rebalancing.|
|·||Liquidity: The liquidity measurement used is a liquidity ratio, defined as dollar value traded over the previous 12-months divided by the float-adjusted market capitalization as of the Underlying Index rebalancing reference date. Stocks having a float-adjusted market capitalization above US$500 million must have a liquidity ratio greater than 90% to be eligible for addition to the Underlying Index. Stocks having a float-adjusted market capitalization between US$400 and US$500 million must have a liquidity ratio greater than 150% to be eligible for addition to the Underlying Index. Existing index constituents must have a liquidity ratio greater than 50% to remain in the Underlying Index at the quarterly rebalancing. The length of time to evaluate liquidity is reduced to the available trading period for IPOs or spin-offs that do not have 12 months of trading history.|
|·||Takeover Restrictions: At the discretion of S&P, constituents with shareholder ownership restrictions defined in company bylaws may be deemed ineligible for inclusion in the Underlying Index. Ownership restrictions preventing entities from replicating the index weight of a company may be excluded from the eligible universe or removed from the Underlying Index.|
Turnover: S&P believes turnover in index membership should be avoided when possible. At times, a company may appear to temporarily violate one or more of the addition criteria. However, the addition criteria are for addition to the Underlying Index, not for continued membership. As a result, an index constituent that appears to violate the criteria for addition to the Underlying Index will not be deleted unless ongoing conditions warrant a change in the composition of the Underlying Index.
Energy Select Sector SPDR® Fund
This Underlying Asset seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the Energy Select Sector Index. The Energy Select Sector Index measures the performance of the energy sector of the U.S. equity market. This Underlying Asset is composed of companies whose primary line of business is directly associated with the energy sector. This Underlying Asset trades on the NYSE Arca under the ticker symbol “XLE.”
The Energy Select Sector Index
The Underlying Index is a modified market capitalization-based index. The index is intended to track the movements of companies that are components of the S&P 500® Index (the “SPX”) and are involved in the development or production of energy products. The index includes companies from the oil, gas and consumable fuels industry, as well as the energy equipment and services industry.
The Underlying Index is one of the Select Sector Indices. The Select Sector Indices are sub-indices of the SPX. Each stock in the SPX is allocated to at least one Select Sector Index, and the combined companies of the Select Sector Indices represent all of the companies in the SPX. The industry indices are sub-categories within each Select Sector Index and represent a specific industry segment of the overall Select Sector Index.
Each Select Sector Index was developed and is maintained in accordance with the following criteria:
|·||Each of the component stocks in a Select Sector Index (the “Component Stocks”) is a constituent company of the SPX.|
|·||The ten Select Sector Indices together will include all of the companies represented in the SPX and each of the stocks in the SPX will be allocated to at least one of the Select Sector Indices.|
|·||The Underlying Index’s “Index Compilation Agent” assigns each constituent stock of the SPX to a Select Sector Index. The Index Compilation Agent assigns a company’s stock to a particular Select Sector Index based on S&P Dow Jones Indices’ sector classification methodology as set forth in its Global Industry Classification Standard.|
|·||Each Select Sector Index is calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices using a modified “market capitalization” methodology. This design ensures that each of the component stocks within a Select Sector Index is represented in a proportion consistent with its percentage with respect to the total market capitalization of that Select Sector Index.|
|·||For reweighting purposes, each Select Sector Index is rebalanced quarterly after the close of business on the second to last calculation day of March, June, September and December using the following procedures: (1) The rebalancing reference date is two business days prior to the last calculation day of each quarter; (2) With prices reflected on the rebalancing reference date, and membership, shares outstanding, additional weight factor (capping factor) and investable weight factors (as described in the section “Computation of the SPX” below) as of the rebalancing effective date, each company is weighted using the modified market capitalization methodology. Modifications are made as defined below.|
(i) The indices are first evaluated to ensure none of the indices breach the maximum allowable limits defined in rules (ii) and (v) below. If any of the allowable limits are breached, the component stocks are reweighted based on their float-adjusted market capitalization weights.
(ii) If any component stock has a weight greater than 24%, that component stock has its float-adjusted market capitalization weight capped at 23%. The 23% weight cap creates a 2% buffer to ensure that no component stock exceeds 25% as of the quarter-end diversification requirement date.
(iii) All excess weight is equally redistributed to all uncapped component stocks within the relevant Select Sector Index.
(iv) After this redistribution, if the float-adjusted market capitalization weight of any other component stock(s) then breaches 23%, the process is repeated iteratively until no component stock s breaches the 23% weight cap.
(v) The sum of the component stocks with weight greater than 4.8% cannot exceed 50% of the total index weight. These caps are set to allow for a buffer below the 5% limit.
(vi) If the rule in step (v) is breached, all the component stocks are ranked in descending order of their float-adjusted market capitalization weights and the first component stock that causes the 50% limit to be breached has its weight reduced to 4.6%.
(vii) This excess weight is equally redistributed to all component stocks with weights below 4.6%. This process is repeated iteratively until step (v) is satisfied.
(viii) Index share amounts are assigned to each component stock to arrive at the weights calculated above. Since index shares are assigned based on prices one business day prior to rebalancing, the actual weight of each component stock at the rebalancing differs somewhat from these weights due to market movements.
(ix) If necessary, the reweighting process may take place more than once prior to the close on the last business day of March, June, September or December to ensure conformity with all diversification requirements.
Each Select Sector Index is calculated using the same methodology utilized by S&P Dow Jones Indices in calculating the SPX, using a base-weighted aggregate methodology. The daily calculation of each Select Sector Index is computed by dividing the total market value of the companies in the Select Sector Index by a number called the index divisor.
The Index Compilation Agent at any time may determine that a Component Stock which has been assigned to one Select Sector Index has undergone such a transformation in the composition of its business, and should be removed from that Select Sector Index and assigned to a different Select Sector Index. In the event that the Index Compilation Agent notifies S&P Dow Jones Indices that a Component Stock’s Select Sector Index assignment should be changed, S&P Dow Jones Indices will disseminate notice of the change following its standard procedure for announcing index changes and will implement the change in the affected Select Sector Indices on a date no less than one week after the initial dissemination of information on the sector change to the maximum extent practicable. It is not anticipated that Component Stocks will change sectors frequently.
Component Stocks removed from and added to the SPX will be deleted from and added to the appropriate Select Sector Index on the same schedule used by S&P Dow Jones Indices for additions and deletions from the SPX insofar as practicable.
The S&P 500® Index
The S&P 500® Index is intended to provide an indication of the pattern of common stock price movement. The calculation of the level of the SPX is based on the relative value of the aggregate market value of the common stocks of 500 companies as of a particular time compared to the aggregate average market value of the common stocks of 500 similar companies during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943.
S&P calculates the SPX by reference to the prices of the constituent stocks of the SPX without taking account of the value of dividends paid on those stocks. As a result, the return on the notes will not reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the SPX constituent stocks and received the dividends paid on those stocks.
Computation of the S&P 500® Index
Historically, the market value of any component stock of the S&P 500® Index was calculated as the product of the market price per share and the number of then outstanding shares of such component stock. In March 2005, S&P began shifting the S&P 500® Index halfway from a market capitalization weighted formula to a float-adjusted formula, before moving the S&P 500® Index to full float adjustment on September 16, 2005. S&P’s criteria for selecting stocks for the S&P 500® Index did not change with the shift to float adjustment. However, the adjustment affects each company’s weight in the S&P 500® Index.
Under float adjustment, the share counts used in calculating the S&P 500® Index reflect only those shares that are available to investors, not all of a company’s outstanding shares. Float adjustment excludes shares that are closely held by control groups, other publicly traded companies or government agencies.
In September 2012, all shareholdings representing more than 5% of a stock’s outstanding shares, other than holdings by “block owners,” were removed from the float for purposes of calculating the S&P 500® Index. Generally, these “control holders” will include officers and directors, private equity, venture capital and special equity firms, other publicly traded companies that hold shares for control, strategic partners, holders of restricted shares, ESOPs, employee and family trusts, foundations associated with the company, holders of unlisted share classes of stock, government entities at all levels (other than government retirement/pension funds) and any individual person who controls a 5% or greater stake in a company as reported in regulatory filings. However, holdings by block owners, such as depositary banks, pension funds, mutual funds and ETF providers, 401(k) plans of the company, government retirement/pension funds, investment funds of insurance companies, asset managers and investment funds, independent foundations and savings and investment plans, will ordinarily be considered part of the float.
Treasury stock, stock options, equity participation units, warrants, preferred stock, convertible stock, and rights are not part of the float. Shares held in a trust to allow investors in countries outside the country of domicile, such as depositary shares and Canadian exchangeable shares are normally part of the float unless those shares form a control block.
For each stock, an investable weight factor (“IWF”) is calculated by dividing the available float shares by the total shares outstanding. Available float shares are defined as the total shares outstanding less shares held by control holders. This calculation is subject to a 5% minimum threshold for control blocks. For example, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares, and no other control group holds 5% of the company’s shares, S&P would assign that company an IWF of 1.00, as no control group meets the 5% threshold. However, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares and another control group holds 20% of the company’s shares, S&P would assign an IWF of 0.77, reflecting the fact that 23% of the company’s outstanding shares are considered to be held for control. As of July 31, 2017, companies with multiple share class lines are no longer eligible for inclusion in the S&P 500® Index. Constituents of the S&P 500® Index prior to July 31, 2017 with multiple share class lines will be grandfathered in and continue to be included in the S&P 500® Index. If a constituent company of the S&P 500® Index reorganizes into a multiple share class line structure, that company will remain in the S&P 500® Index at the discretion of the S&P Index Committee in order to minimize turnover.
The S&P 500® Index is calculated using a base-weighted aggregate methodology. The level of the S&P 500® Index reflects the total market value of all 500 component stocks relative to the base period of the years 1941 through 1943. An indexed number is used to represent the results of this calculation in order to make the level easier to use and track over time. The actual total market value of the component stocks during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943 has been set to an indexed level of 10. This is often indicated by the notation 1941-43 = 10. In practice, the daily calculation of the S&P 500® Index is computed by dividing the total market value of the component stocks by the “index divisor.” By itself, the index divisor is an arbitrary number. However, in the context of the calculation of the S&P 500® Index, it serves as a link to the original base period level of the S&P 500® Index. The index divisor keeps the S&P 500® Index comparable over time and is the manipulation point for all adjustments to the S&P 500® Index, which is index maintenance.
Index maintenance includes monitoring and completing the adjustments for company additions and deletions, share changes, stock splits, stock dividends, and stock price adjustments due to company restructuring or spinoffs. Some corporate actions, such as stock splits and stock dividends, require changes in the common shares outstanding and the stock prices of the companies in the S&P 500® Index, and do not require index divisor adjustments.
To prevent the level of the S&P 500® Index from changing due to corporate actions, corporate actions which affect the total market value of the S&P 500® Index require an index divisor adjustment. By adjusting the index divisor for the change in market value, the level of the S&P 500® Index remains constant and does not reflect the corporate actions of individual companies in the S&P 500® Index. Index divisor adjustments are made after the close of trading and after the calculation of the S&P 500® Index closing level.
Changes in a company’s total shares outstanding of 5% or more due to public offerings are made as soon as reasonably possible. Other changes of 5% or more (for example, due to tender offers, Dutch auctions, voluntary exchange offers, company stock repurchases, private placements, acquisitions of private companies or non-index companies that do not trade on a major exchange, redemptions, exercise of options, warrants, conversion of preferred stock, notes, debt, equity participations, at-the-market stock offerings or other recapitalizations) are made weekly, and are generally announced on Fridays for implementation after the close of trading the following Friday (one week later). If a 5% or more share change causes a company’s IWF to change by five percentage points or more, the IWF is updated at the same time as the share change. IWF changes resulting from partial tender offers are considered on a case-by-case basis.
Validity of the Notes
In the opinion of Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP, the issue and sale of the notes has been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Bank in conformity with the Senior Indenture, and when this pricing supplement has been attached to, and duly notated on, the master note that represents the notes, the notes will have been validly executed and issued and, to the extent validity of the notes is a matter governed by the laws of the Province of Ontario, or the laws of Canada applicable therein, and will be valid obligations of the Bank, subject to the following limitations (i) the enforceability of the Senior Indenture may be limited by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act (Canada), the Winding-up and Restructuring Act (Canada) and bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, receivership, moratorium, arrangement or winding-up laws or other similar laws affecting the enforcement of creditors’ rights generally; (ii) the enforceability of the Senior Indenture may be limited by equitable principles, including the principle that equitable remedies such as specific performance and injunction may only be granted in the discretion of a court of competent jurisdiction; (iii) pursuant to the Currency Act (Canada) a judgment by a Canadian court must be awarded in Canadian currency and that such judgment may be based on a rate of exchange in existence on a day other than the day of payment; and (iv) the enforceability of the Senior Indenture will be subject to the limitations contained in the Limitations Act, 2002 (Ontario), and such counsel expresses no opinion as to whether a court may find any provision of the Senior Debt Indenture to be unenforceable as an attempt to vary or exclude a limitation period under that Act. This opinion is given as of the date hereof and is limited to the laws of the Provinces of Ontario and the federal laws of Canada applicable thereto. In addition, this opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the Trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the Indenture and the genuineness of signatures and certain factual matters, all as stated in the letter of such counsel dated September 23, 2018, which has been filed as Exhibit 5.3 to Bank of Montreal’s Form 6-K filed with the SEC and dated September 23, 2018.
In the opinion of Morrison & Foerster LLP, when the pricing supplement has been attached to, and duly notated on, the master note that represents the notes, and the notes have been issued and sold as contemplated by the prospectus supplement and the prospectus, the notes will be valid, binding and enforceable obligations of Bank of Montreal, entitled to the benefits of the Senior Indenture, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, concepts of reasonableness and equitable principles of general applicability (including, without limitation, concepts of good faith, fair dealing and the lack of bad faith). This opinion is given as of the date hereof and is limited to the laws of the State of New York. This opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the Trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the Senior Indenture and the genuineness of signatures and to such counsel’s reliance on the Bank and other sources as to certain factual matters, all as stated in the legal opinion dated September 23, 2018, which has been filed as Exhibit 5.4 to the Bank’s Form 6-K dated September 23, 2018.